Digital cameras

Digital cameras differ from their analog predecessors primarily in that they do not use film, but capture and save photographs on digital memory cards or internal storage instead. Their low operating costs have relegated chemical cameras to niche markets. Digital cameras now include wireless communication capabilities (for example Wi-Fi or Bluetooth) to transfer, print or share photos, and are commonly found on mobile phones. In 1969 Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith invented the first successful imaging technology using a digital sensor, a CCD (Charge-Coupled Device). CCD would allow the rapid development of digital photography. For their contribution to digital photography Boyle and Smith were granted the Nobel Prize in Physics 2009.[22] In 1975 Kodak engineer Steven Sasson invented the first digital still camera, which used a Fairchild 100 x 100 pixel CCD.[23][24] On August 25, 1981 Sony unveiled a prototype of the Sony Mavica. This camera was an analog electronic camera that featured interchangeable lenses and a SLR viewfinder. At Photokina in 1986, Nikon revealed a prototype analog electronic still SLR camera, the Nikon SVC, a precursor to the digital SLR.[25] The prototype body shared many features with the N8008.[25] The follower Nikon QV-1000C Still Video Camera was produced since 1988 mainly for professional press use.[26] Both cameras used QV mount lenses, a variant of F-mount lenses. Other Nikon F-mount lenses can be fitted via an adapter (QM-100). In 1991, Kodak released the first commercially available fully digital SLR, the Kodak DCS-100, previously shown at Photokina in 1990.[27] It consisted of a modified Nikon F3 SLR body, modified drive unit, and an external storage unit connected via cable. The 1.3 megapixel camera cost approximately US$30,000. This was followed by the Kodak DCS-200 with integrated storage and other Kodak DCS cameras.[28] In Septemb r 1991, NASA launched the Nikon NASA F4 on board the Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-48. The camera was based on a modified F4 with standard F-mount and had a digital camera back with a monochrome CCD image sensor with 1024 x 1024 pixels on an area of 15 x 15mm. In 1999, Nikon announced the Nikon D1. The D1's body was similar to Nikon's professional 35mm film DSLRs, and it had the same Nikkor lens mount, allowing the D1 to use Nikon's existing line of AI/AIS manual-focus and AF lenses. Although Nikon and other manufacturers had produced digital SLR cameras for several years prior, the D1 was the first professional digital SLR that displaced Kodak's then-undisputed reign over the professional market.[30] Over the next decade, other camera manufacturers entered the DSLR market, including Canon, Kodak, Fujifilm, Minolta (later Konica Minolta, and ultimately acquired by Sony), Pentax (whose camera division is now owned by Ricoh), Olympus, Panasonic, Samsung, Sigma, and Sony. In January 2000, Fujifilm announced the FinePix S1 Pro, the first consumer-level DSLR. In November 2001, Canon released its 4.1 megapixel EOS-1D, the brand's first professional digital body. In 2003, Canon introduced the 6.3 megapixel EOS 300D SLR camera (known in the United States and Canada as the Digital Rebel and in Japan as the Kiss Digital) with an MSRP of US$999, aimed at the consumer market. Its commercial success encouraged other manufacturers to produce competing digital SLRs, lowering entry costs and allowing more amateur photographers to purchase DSLRs. In 2004, Konica Minolta released the Konica Minolta Maxxum 7D, the first DSLR with in-body image stabilization[31] which later on become standard in Pentax, Olympus and Sony Alpha cameras. In early 2009, Nikon released the D90, the first DSLR to feature video recording. Since then all major companies offer cameras with this functionality.