Subminiature camera

Cameras taking film significantly smaller than 35 mm were made. Subminiature cameras were first produced in the nineteenth century. The expensive 8?11 mm Minox, the only type of camera produced by the company from 1937 to 1976, became very widely known and was often used for espionage (the Minox company later also produced larger cameras). Later inexpensive subminiatures were made for general use, some using rewound 16 mm cine film. Image quality with these small film sizes was limited. Subminiature photography is photography with unusually small cameras using unusually small film formats. It is distinct from photomicrography, photographing microscopic subjects with a camera which is not particularly small. The term "miniature" was originally used to describe the 35 mm format, so cameras that used a format smaller than 35 mm were referred to as "sub-miniature".[1]:11 The smallest of these are often referred to as "ultra-miniature". In the interest of specificity, cameras that produce an image on the film smaller than the standard 135 film format (24?36 mm) are usually included in the genre. Lipstick cameras and other small digital cameras are not included, because they don't use film. The smaller subminiature or ultraminiature cameras, particularly Minox, are associated with spying. There are many subminiature cameras. Minox, followed by Tessina, GaMi, Rollei, Yashica, Mamiya, and Minolta are the best-known manufacturers. All made small, precision cameras and a few were still in production in 2006 but by 2011, only the Minox TL

model was still in production. Getting film and processing for most smaller cameras is a challenge as they are no longer supported. Most require cutting your own film, and home-processing. The best known subminiature formats are—in increasing size—Minox (8?11 mm), Kodak disc (8?11 mm), 16 mm (10?14 mm), Super 16 mm (12?17 mm), 110 film (13?17 mm), Tessina (14?21 mm), half-frame 35 mm (18?24 mm), and Advanced Photo System (APS), different aspect ratios on 24 mm film. While many subminiature cameras were inexpensive and poorly manufactured (thus giving the format a bad name), Minox, Tessina, Gami, Edixa, Rollei, Pentax and Minolta made quality cameras capable of producing fine results—even enlarged. Some of these formats, or non-standard cartridges loaded with an otherwise standard cine format, are best described as specialised (e.g., Minox); half-frame 35 mm uses standard 35 mm film; cameras such as 110 and disc were aimed at the mass market. First making an appearance in the late 19th century, often as concealed cameras, subminiature cameras became popular soon after WWII when many consumer markets required small, inexpensive cameras[citation needed]. Friedrich Kaftansky's Mini-flex was designed in 1931, on the market in 1933. Walter Zapp's Riga Minox appeared in 1938.[1]:14 Kodak's introduction of the 110 camera in the 1970s and the Kodak disc camera in the 1980s brought the subminiature camera to the forefront of the photographic market. But the many cheap, poorly made cameras that soon appeared drove Kodak out of the market